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This joint stakeholder report focuses on key issues relating to human rights online in India, including internet shutdowns, digital exclusion, freedom of speech and expression online, online harassment and hate speech, privacy, surveillance and data protection. The report draws on extensive and ongoing monitoring of the situation of human rights online in India by a number of civil society organisations and a desk review.
This review marks the fourth cycle for India in the Universal Periodic Review mechanism. During the third cycle, India received nine recommendations relating to free speech, tackling religious discrimination, hate speech and xenophobia against minorities, protection of human rights defenders, privacy and communications surveillance. However, India failed to accept even a single one of these recommendations.
Overall, India has accepted only 152 out of 250 recommendations made during the third cycle. In previous cycles, India had accepted 67 out of 169 recommendations (second cycle); and five out of 18 recommendations (first cycle).