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Freedom of expression and opinion is an important factor in the fulfilment of human rights. The United Nations Human Rights Committee states that freedom of expression and opinion is the basis for the full enjoyment of other human rights. For example, freedom of expression is integral to the fulfilment of freedom of association, freedom of assembly and the right to vote. In its development, freedom of expression is not only offline, but also online via internet access.
The United Nations Human Rights Council affirms that the same rights of people offline must also be protected online, in particular freedom of expression, which applies regardless of boundaries and through any media chosen by a person, in accordance with Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. This report aims to provide an overview of the fulfillment and protection of online freedom of expression, identify specific issues related to laws that are often used against it and also provide recommendations for improvements related to online freedom of expression in Indonesia.
This report follows the format of analysis of the 2017 APC report Unshackling Expression: A study on laws criminalising expression online in Asia. It uses a normative-empirical legal research method that combines the analysis of written regulations related to freedom of expression online with the practice of how these regulations are applied, both to protect or even violate freedom of expression online.
The publication of this report was supported by APC through the CYRILLA Initiative. It is available in English and Bahasa Indonesia.