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Image source: Max Pixel, used under CC0 Public Domain licence (

Global cyber governance, including the protection of a secure and stable cyberspace, cannot be limited to any one actor. Only collectively with non-state actors can traditional public actors, nation-states and multilateral forums address complex and transnational global cyber threats. Therefore, an inclusive approach to maintaining peace and stability in cyberspace is needed.

In order to support the implementation of the agreed UN GGE norms adopted in 2015, we provide feedback on the proposals which are part of the current Open-ended Working Group on developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security (OEWG).

The overarching key messages in our feedback include the following:

  • The operationalisation, by which we mean the enforcement and implementation of existing norms, should be the focus of current efforts by both state and non-state actors.

  • Implementation should take into account the impact on human rights, as humans are the ones impacted by cyberthreats, incidents and operations. This includes the differentiated impacts on people or groups in positions of marginalisation or vulnerability because of their sexual orientation or gender identity, ethnicity, race, and other social and cultural hierarchies. Therefore, states should encourage further analysis or promotion of the eleven voluntary norms of the 2015 GGE, including their gender dimensions. To meaningfully interpret the 2015 norms in a gender-sensitive way, gender-sensitivity approaches should be included from the start and built into the beginning of future initiatives to operationalise the norms.

  • The engagement of all relevant stakeholders including civil society, technical community and academia from a broad range of countries is essential.

Read the full submission here.