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Freedom of assembly and association (FoAA) is a fundamental right recognised in Article 20 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. FoAA online refers to the exercise of civil rights in peaceful assembly and association enhanced by the use of information and communication technology (ICT).

There are three objectives of this report:

  • First, it seeks to deepen understanding about the context in which FoAA online in Malaysia exists. For this, some background is provided on the historical context of FoAA in Malaysia and its transition towards the digital realm, as well as the legal restrictions on FoAA online.

  • Secondly, it aims to capture the creativity and richness of campaign strategies enhanced by the use of ICT in civil society movements in Malaysia.

  • Lastly, it relates the exercise of FoAA online to the broader struggles of human rights in the country, through deriving observations from the campaign case studies as well as challenges and threats faced by cyber activists in Malaysia.

This report was produced as part of the Advocacy for Change through Technology in India, Malaysia and Pakistan (APC-IMPACT) project.