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Research on criminalisation of expression on the internet


The Association for Progressive Communications (APC) is undertaking research on the criminalisation of expression in India, Malaysia, Pakistan and Myanmar. In this regard, APC is calling for civil society organisations, researchers and lawyers from each of the abovementioned countries to carry out the research.

This research is part of a broader initiative of APC, “Networking for freedom online and offline: Protecting freedom of expression, association and information on the internet in India, Malaysia and Pakistan”, also known as “India, Malaysia, Pakistan: Advocacy for Change through Technology” (abbreviated as APC IMPACT).

Key research objectives

  • To understand the gamut of restrictions imposed on freedom of expression on the internet by laws in the states studied.

  • To take stock of the existing judicial and other initiatives against these restrictions.

  • To identify specific issues with laws and provisions frequently used in these states against expression.

  • To map the timeline of the various pieces of legislation and the sources referred to when developing provisions.

  • To examine if online and offline expression are treated similarly.

  • To develop a document that can be used to advocate for changes in laws with lawmakers and judicial bodies in the states studied.

Deliverables and responsibilities

  • Develop a national report on the criminalisation of expression on the internet based on the framework provided by the research coordinator.

  • Work closely with the research coordinator to ensure that deadlines are met and attend periodic meetings online.

  • Finalise the report based on feedback from the research coordinator.

  • Provide inputs to the regional analysis and synthesis of all national reports prepared by the research coordinator.


The consultant’s fees for this research coordination shall be EUR 3000 (including expenses). The consultant shall be paid a first installment of 50% (EUR 1500) on signing the contract and a second installment of 50% (EUR 1500) on completion of all deliverables, submission of invoice, and timesheet in the format provided by APC.

The time frame and schedule of activities will be decided mutually.

Application requirements

1) Profile of the organisation/individual applying.
2) An account of your work on ICT policies.
3) Plans for advocacy on issues relating to ICT policies and freedom of expression based on the report produced.

Deadline for applications

The deadline for applications is 21 April 2017, 12:30 UTC.

For further details, please contact the APC IMPACT project coordinator, Gayatri Khandhadai: