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The Andean region has some of the lowest fixed telephone line, mobile telephony and broadband penetration rates of all Latin America, the continent with the starkest economic disparities in the world. In the 90s, Andean countries adopted new liberalisation and privatisation policies in order to attain universal access. Almost 20 years later, these promises have not been fulfilled. APC studied each country through national reports in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela in order to understand this failure. As the State in countries like Venezuela and Ecuador has begun to play a more pro-active role, the research also analyses their effectiveness and the opportunities and challenges of this renewed involvement. The end goal is for civil society in the region to have the solid tools they need to ensure that inclusive and democratic policies around broadband are put in place.

The project under which research was carried out is called Communication for Influence in Latin America and the Caribbean (CILAC). CILAC also promoted the creation of AndinaTIC, a network of civil society organisations from the Andean region that are working on ICT policy advocacy. AndinaTIC members produced national advocacy reports, which are available below.

Research: regional overview and national reports

> Introductory report: Telecommunications Regulation and Broadband Development: Implications for the Andean region
> Bolivia: Universal Broadband Access: Advances and challenges
> Colombia: The strategy of opening educational institutions as community internet access centres (Only available in Spanish)
> Ecuador: Wireless Networks for Development
> Peru: The Battle for Control of the Internet
> Venezuela: NAP: An Opportunity to Improve Universal Broadband Access?

Research summaries

> Broadband in Bolivia: Good intentions and a long way to go
> Ecuador: Getting to where cables and commercial interests don’t reach
> Battle for control of the internet in Peru
> Local internet traffic in Venezuela: More efficiency or more State control?

Universal access funds: regional overview and national reports

> Introduction to the Regional Advocacy reports: Universal Access Funds in the Andean Region
> Colombia: Communications Fund (Only available in Spanish)
> Ecuador: Fund for the Development of Telecommunications in Rural and Urban-marginal Areas (Only available in Spanish)
> Peru: Fund for the Investment in Telecommunications (Only available in Spanish)
> Venezuela: Fund for Universal Service (Only available in Spanish)

National advocacy actions

> Colombia: Social appropriation: The implementation of the new Compartel telecentres (Only available in Spanish)
> Ecuador: Inputs from civil society for the formulation of the Communication Law (Only available in Spanish)
> Peru: Public strategies for new technologies in rural areas (Only available in Spanish)
> Venezuela: Analysis of the proposal for reforming the Telecommunications, informatics and postal services law (Only available in Spanish)

Photo: “Velaia via Flickr”: