This regional research paper frames the discussions of freedom of assembly and association (FOAA) online, focusing on the challenges, trends, recommendations and areas for further study in India, Malaysia and Pakistan. It is part of the Association for Progressive Communications (APC) project entitled “Networking for freedom online and offline: protecting freedom of information, expression and association on the internet in India, Malaysia and Pakistan”, also known as India, Malaysia, Pakistan: Advocacy for Change through Technology (APC-IMPACT).
The paper consists of five sections. Section I provides an introduction to FoAA online. Section II discusses the legal framework for understanding these rights and their application in the countries under study. Section III discusses the trends of FoAA online in the three countries. Section IV highlights threats, opportunities and remedies related to the exercise of FoAA online. Section V provides recommendations for the various stakeholders.