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Resources

community_module_resources Implementation of Projects

Nepal wireless networking project: case study and evaluation report. 
Wireless networking for rural development


Authors: M. Pun; R. Shields; R. Poudel; P. Mucci
Publisher: Electronic Networking for Rural Asia/Pacific
Date: September 2006

This paper provides an evaluation of the Nepal Wireless Networking Project. The main aim of the project is to bridge the digital divide by mean of wireless technology benefitting the rural population of Nepal. The project is a tangible example of the successful implementation of ICTs that has helped to reduce poverty, create job opportunities, improve communication, encourage e-commerce and increase the quality and availability of healthcare in the rural communities.  
Tags: Nepal, wireless technology, rural, communities, ICTs

Women connect! The power of communications to improve women’s lives
Communications capacity building for African women's NGOs
Authors: Pacific Institute for Women's Health
Publisher: Pacific Institute for Women's Health
Date: 2002

The following report entails the findings of a three-year programme dealing with women’s NGOs in Africa. The project’s main aim was to enable women’s NGOs to communicate better by means of traditional media (posters and brochures), mass media (newspapers, radio, magazines and television) and ICT (email and Internet). The NGOs used these various means of media to communicate and campaign against problems facing women in these areas. The countries included in the project were Zambia, Zimbabwe and Uganda.
Tags: women, ICT, mass media, traditional media, NGOs

Keeping up with technology: the use of mobile telephony in delivering community-based decentralised animal health services in Mwingi and Kitui Districts, Kenya
Have mobile phones improved animal health services in Kenya?
Authors: J. Kithuka; J. Mutemi; A.,H. Mohamed
Publisher: Farm Africa
Date: 2007
This working paper provides a report of FARM-Africa’s Kenya Dairy Goat and Capacity Building Project (KDGCBP), a project focused in the implementation of mobile and pay phones in the marginalized and resource-poor districts of Mwingi and Kitui, to improve animal health services. These areas have been affected by policy changes by the Kenyan Government, which has resulted in a decline of veterinary personnel over the last twenty years. The paper concludes with the successes of the project with regard to animal health services.
Tags: mobile phones, pay phones, Kenya, animal health services, pro-poor

Sustainable ICT case histories.  Detailed case studies on ICT project successes and sustainability
Authors: S. Batchelor; P. Norrish; N. Scott; M. Webb; Gamos; Big World
Publisher: Department for International Development, UK
Date: October 2003
This report provides 12 detailed case studies that illustrate that ICTs can benefit developments projects. The main aim of the case studies was to implement ICTs in a way that would increase local communities’ access to jobs, improve education and government policy, or expand the reach of current projects in the areas.   The results are not conclusive in terms of sustainability but significant developmental impacts are evident.  The projects fell under five general categories: Information Technology training and telecenters; networks and partnerships; e-commerce; e-services; and radio and education.
Tags: development, ICTs, sustainability, education, government, telecenters

Community-based networks and innovative technologies: New models to serve and empower the poor
Authors: S. Ó Siochrú and B. Girard
Publisher: United Nations Development Programme
Date: 2005
This report looks at how innovative technologies such as wireless networks can be applied in communities where there is a focus on integrating access and connectivity into development models. Various forms of ownership models are discussed, including cooperatives, community-based networks, and empowerment models.   It also examines the policy and regulatory environment and possible financing mechanisms. Pro-poor case studies are included to illustrate various community-owned models.
Tags: community networks, ownership models, pro-poor, policy, regulatory frameworks

A Survey of Rural Communities’ Attitudes on the Use of the SMS and Pod-casting Technology to Promote Human Rights
Authors: L. Mtshali, A. Naidoo and N. Zungu
Publishers: HIVOS
Date: 2007
This survey focuses on the use of mobile phones and pod-cast technology for reporting human right violations. The survey was conducted in five rural areas in the province of KwaZulu Natal in South Africa. The UmNyango project aims to use new technologies such as SMS and Pod-casting to report domestic violence; women’s exclusion from access and control of land; participation in government; conflict; and access to justice. A survey was conducted to find out in-depth details about the communities’ use of mobile phones and their attitudes towards using these phones to promote human rights.
Tags: mobile phones, SMS, pod-cast, human rights, survey, South Africa
 
Livelihood Changes Enabled by Mobile Phones: The Case of Tanzanian Fishermen
Author: J. Myhr and L. Nordström
Publisher: Uppsala University
Date: 2006
This report deals with a field study entailing interviews with Tanzanian fishermen and their use of mobile phones. The study aims to find out if the mobile phone improves the livelihood indicators of empowerment, opportunity and vulnerability to risk, with groups such as Tanzanian fishermen, who have previously been excluded from any means of technological communication. The report reveals that increased access to information by means of mobile phones can impact all the indicators positively.
Tags: mobile phones, livelihoods, fishermen, access, Tanzania, ICTs

Mobile Phones and Development: The Future in New Hands?
Author: R. Heeks and A. Jagun
Publisher: id21 insights
Date: September 2007
This issue of id21 insights covers topics related to mobile phone use within marginalized areas or groups, and the economic advantages associated with mobile phones in disadvantaged communities. Articles include the dissemination of information in Bangladesh villages by means of mobile phones, mobile banking, the impact of mobile phones in Jamaica, and Nigeria’s textile sector, in addition to other articles related to the topic. The policies related to mobile phone use, and their implications are also covered in the issue.
Tags: mobile phones, mobile banking, marginalized communities, policies

Wireless Technology for Social Change: Trends in Mobile Use by NGOs
Author: S. Kinkade and K. Verclas
Publisher: (Kinkade) ShareIdeas.org, (Verclas) MobileActive.org
Date: April 29, 2008
This report provides 11 case studies where mobile technology has been used by NGOs and other groups to implement changes in health, the environment and humanitarian relief. The case studies are included to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of mobile technology, focusing on social, political, civil and economic factors. In addition the report includes a survey of mobile technology use in relation to NGOs, where statistics are provided on the use of mobile applications and their perceived benefits.
Tags: NGOs, mobile technology, health, environment, humanitarian relief

Leveraging Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to Support Public Health Workforce Communications and Capacity Development in Central America
Author: CDC Coordinating Center for Health Information and Services
Publisher: CDC
Date:  2007
This short report discusses insights from the implementation of ICTs for health emergencies. The report was supported by the Guatemala branch of the United-States-based Centers for Disease and Prevention (CDC). The report found that email was the most preferred method of receiving information in a public health emergency.  The implementation of ICTs, in this case, is useful due to the speedy communication and instructional capabilities available during health emergencies.
Tags: health emergencies, ICTs, email, Guatemala, communication

Computerising agricultural cooperatives: a practical guide
Authors:  UN System Network on Rural Development and Food Security
Publisher: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Date: 2006
This manual provides a reference for agricultural cooperatives that are considering computerization, providing the advantages and disadvantages of the process. The manual is aimed at managers, trainers and policy makers guiding them in a manner that will ensure successful computerization at a local level. The manual is based on experiences in Asia, Africa and South America. The manual also lists “The 10 commandments of Computerisation” outlining the basic rules to follow with regards to computerization.
Tags: agricultural cooperatives, computerization, Asia, Africa, South America, manual

A rural ICT toolkit for Africa
Best practices for the planning, financing and implementing of ICT projects in rural Africa
Authors: Intelecon
Publisher: Infodev
Date: 2003
This toolkit is a collection of prerequisites, best practices and checklists with regard to the planning, financing and implementation of telecom and informatics projects in Africa. The experiences are based on a survey of ten African countries, with specific focus on the rural regions.  Some of the topics covered include: market dynamics and demand analysis, business planning, funding principles and processes, monitoring and evaluation; and best practices for ICT policy in rural areas.
Tags: toolkit, project planning, telecommunications, informatics, Africa, rural, ICT, best practices

Making information and communication technologies work for food security in Africa
How can governments promote food security through ICT development?
Authors: R. Bertolini
Publisher: International Food Policy Research Institute
Date: 2004
The following report deals with ICTs (specifically fixed-line, mobile phones and Internet services) that enable the reduction of poverty in Africa. The report focuses on the current availability of ICTs in Africa, opportunities for ICTS in promoting food security and suggestions for improving the promotion of ICT development though government, private and civil society collaboration. In addition the report advises on the private sector’s role with regard to ICTs in development.
Tags:  ICT, development, Africa, food security, poverty

Pro-poor wireless networks (Powerpoint presentation)
This powerpoint presentation by Vic Hayes, the father of wireless networks, provides an easy-to-understand overview of the concept of wireless networks, how they work and where they have been applied.  The powerpoint includes some interesting data on the availability of spectrum, which clearly illustrate the problematic situation regarding unfriendly policy and regulatory environments in Africa as compared to other continents.   
Tags: wireless networks, case studies, spectrum, statistics, Nepal, Ecuador, Denmark

Digital Poverty - Latin American and Caribbean Perspectives
Editors: H. Galperin and J. Mariscal
Publisher: Practical Action Publishing/IDRC
Date: 2007 (ISBN: 978-1-85339-663-2; e-ISBN: 978-1-55250-342-3)
This book deals with the problem of lack of access to ICTs in Latin America and the Caribbean, in addition to the need for ICT policies to focus on pro-poor interventions. The book illustrates how a failure of market reforms has resulted in marginalized areas experiencing a lack of benefits from ICTs, where they are excluded from the Information Society.

Chapter 6 (Selecting sustainable ICT solutions for pro-poor intervention) by Mallalieu and Rocke deals exclusively with an effective model to ensure that communities do not become digitally excluded. The Percolator model is introduced as a framework within which ICT solutions for the poor and marginalized communities can be implemented by means of a ‘distillation’ process, that can be applied on other technologies if need be.

Chapter 7 (Conclusion: ICT and pro-poor strategies and research) by Mahan provides conclusions in relation to ICT demand and supply side issues, regulatory reform and the private sector, consumer advocacy, new ownership models for network service provision and emerging network technology solutions, focusing specifically on the pro-poor aspects.
Tag: ICTs, Latin America, Caribbean, pro-poor, business models , networks


 ‘Open Access’ - An approach for building and financing pro-poor ICT infrastructure
Authors: D. Okello
Publisher: Wougnet
Date: August 2006
This power point presentation provides an open access approach that attempts to build sustainable community-led ICT networks.  The presentation outlines the need for pro-poor ICT networks, the challenges faced by rural communities, and an explanation of the open access approach, with regard to infrastructure, regulation and financing.  The models covered include the promotion of communities to set up their own networks, although regulatory frameworks are essential to ensure corporate companies are forced to adopt open access models.  
Tags: open access models, pro-poor, ICT, wireless, rural, Uganda
 

Tools and technologies for equitable access
This is one of four papers in a series on equitable access to ICT infrastructure commissioned by the APC. The paper presents an overview of five technology areas, dealing with the issues and strategies as well as providing recommendations.  The five areas covered are:  wireless access; low-cost and low-power computing; open standards, hardware and software; local services and content; and open access and open networks.  
Author:  Alberto Escudero-Pascual
Publisher: Association for Progressives Communications
Date:  November 2007
Tags:  equitable access, ICT, infrastructure, wireless, open networks, open access, low cost computing


Building a Rural Wireless Mesh Network - A do-it-yourself guide to planning and building a Freifunk based mesh network
This manual provides a do-it-yourself guide to installing a mesh network in rural areas. It is based on the practical experience of the Meraka Institute, South Africa.  It covers all areas of planning as well as a section on regulatory aspects and service provision.  A planning sheet is provided for managing such an installation.
Author:  David Johnson et al
Publisher:  Wireless Africa, Meraka institute, CSIR, South Africa
Date: November 2007
Tags:  wireless, mesh networks, manual, building, planning, rural, ICTs


Tools and Resources for Support

 Feminist Technology Exchange
The Feminist Technology Exchange helps feminist and women’s rights movements to develop women’s understanding of new technologies. The main aim of the organization is to improve the lives of women by introducing a space where skills and knowledge can be shared in terms of the implementation of ICT. The organization also aims to creative partnerships between advocates of women’s rights, and to develop a community of trainers to sustain lessons learnt from successful partnerships.
Tags:  women’s rights, feminist, ICT, skills, knowledge, partnerships

Choike.org – A portal on Southern Civil Services
Choike.org is a portal representing work done by NGOs and social movements in Southern developing countries. The site provides a list of Southern NGOs, divided into categories and sub-categories. A search function has been implemented for ease of use. The site provides in depth reports, news items and information resources, in addition to information on NGO actions and campaigns.  
Tags: NGOs, developing countries, portal, resources, reports

ShareIdeas – Global
The ShareIdeas website is aimed at teachers, health care professionals, environmentalists, development professionals and others that are interested in sharing resources and ideas with regard to mobile communication, and its ability to bring about positive social change.  The website’s main aim is to bring people across the world together to achieve development goals by means of sharing information through the interactive components of the site, or explore the resources and case studies that are archived.
Tags: sharing, knowledge, mobile communication, social change, interactivity

The International Summit for Community Wireless Networks
The International Summit for Community Wireless Networks is an annual global conference that brings together many of the greatest experts in the world on wireless networking technology, information activism, and community empowerment.


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