This informative workshop report by WATRA outlines the major discussion points and issues brought up by presenters during the workshop- such as benefits and the various challenges related to the transition, and provides country summaries for three countries that are at different stages of the migration: Ghana, Nigeria and Senegal.
ICTs and environmental sustainability: Mapping national policy contexts in India, Bangladesh, Egypt, Costa Rica and Mexico
APC commissioned five of its members to conduct research in their country on the topic of ICTs and environmental sustainability. This report compiles and summarises the findings of research conducted in five different countries.
For about 75 years up to the sixties, nearly all telecommunications services in the country were in private hands, distributed among hundreds of local operators. Telephony authorizations were issued and controlled by the state governments. In this process Companhia Telefônica Brasileira (CTB, a subsidiary of the Canadian company Brazilian Traction) emerged as a major operator of local and long-distance services in the majority of the larger Brazilian cities, covering about 80% of the telephone terminals in the country. CTB shared the market in these cities with Companhia Telefônica Nacional, CTN, an ITT3 subsidiary. The remaining cities and towns were covered by small local operators in extremely precarious situations.
Prior to 1994, spectrum in South Africa was managed by the state body responsible for its implementation. Thus broadcast spectrum was managed by the South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) and telecommunications spectrum managed by the state telecommunications provider, Telkom. This was generally uncontentious because, prior to the rise of mobile telecommunications and wireless broadband, the availability of spectrum significantly exceeded its demand.