This study seeks to explore recent legislative developments aimed at addressing and providing avenues of redress for technology-related violence against women. We explore the objectives, structure and application of four domestic legislative responses to different forms of violence against women, seeking to understand how domestic legislatures are responding to increasing awareness of violence against women online.
Domestic legal remedies for technology-related violence against women: Review of related studies and literature
This review of related studies and literature forms part of the legal remedy research which falls under the “End violence: Women’s rights and safety online” flagship project of the Association for Progressive Communications. The review will present different perspectives on the interrelatedness and interconnectedness between ICT and VAW. It will cover the existing laws, prevailing policy frameworks and mechanisms in cases of technology-related VAW, and identify gaps and emerging issues from seven countries, namely Bosnia and Herzegovina, Colombia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Mexico, Pakistan and the Philippines.
The following case summaries are excerpted from “End violence against women: Country reports”, which involve seven countries and are part of research commissioned by the Association for Progressive Communications Women’s Rights Programme (APC WRP) beginning in 2013.
A recent report, “Internet intermediaries and violence against women online” released by the Association for Progressive Communications for the “End violence: Women’s rights and safety online” project, analyses the policies and redress framework of the three major internet intermediaries: Facebook, Twitter and YouTube, in regard to violence against women online. These case studies allow APC to further its progress by creating a bridge between social networking platforms and policymakers by analyzing and addressing concerns found in the intermediaries’ online policies and responses to issues of VAW.
New Zealanders are generally free to express themselves online, while at the same there is a high degree of soft self-censorship. These are some of the findings of a new report produced by APC and funded by InternetNZ.
Internet intermediary liability can have a significant deterrent effect on intermediaries’ willingness and ability to provide services, and therefore may end up hindering the development of the internet itself. For this reason, legislators around the globe have defined special “comfort zones” for the operation of intermediaries, also known as “safe harbours”, limiting the liability of such entities in specific sets of circumstances.
As this background paper illustrates, significant differences exist concerning the subjects of these limitations, their scope and their modes of operation. Nevertheless, international best practices can be identified that may provide useful guidance for the drafting or the improvement of the current legislation in a number of African countries.
This paper looks at the role of internet intermediaries in South Africa as well as their limitations on enabling communication and facilitating information flows and the recently placed policy focus on internet intermediaries.
The liability of internet intermediaries in Nigeria, Kenya, South Africa and Uganda: An uncertain terrain
This paper is part of a research project conducted on intermediary liability in Nigeria, Kenya, South Africa and Uganda. The paper draws on the independent research conducted by in-country researchers. The research includes five reports, as well as blog posts.